All About PEG Gold Nanoparticles

Definition, Properties, Applications, and Its Comparison to Nanopartz In Vitro and In Vivo Polymer


Background, Properties and Applications

PEGylated gold nanoparticles have shown promising benefits in various biomedical applications. A study by Zhang et al. (2012) demonstrated that PEG-coated gold nanoparticles can act as radiosensitizers in cancer radiation therapy, leading to a decrease in tumor volume and weight after radiation. The study highlighted that specific sizes of these nanoparticles exhibit greater sensitization effects, potentially resulting in the complete disappearance of tumors.

Furthermore, the biocompatibility of PEG-functionalized gold nanoparticles is crucial for their use in targeted drug delivery systems, as discussed by (Oroskar et al., 2016). The PEGylation of gold nanoparticles enhances their suitability as nanocarriers for biomedical applications, ensuring compatibility with biological systems and enabling targeted delivery of therapeutic agents.

In addition, the surface modification of gold nanoparticles with PEG contributes to their stability and biocompatibility, making them ideal for various applications. Stan et al. (2012) emphasized that thiol-functionalized PEG on the surface of gold nanoparticles resists protein adsorption, enhancing biocompatibility and enabling targeted labeling for specific tissues.

Moreover, the unique properties of PEGylated gold nanoparticles, such as high biocompatibility and prolonged circulation time in the bloodstream, make them valuable tools in nanomedicine, as highlighted by (He et al., 2014). These nanoparticles exhibit favorable characteristics for applications ranging from in vivo imaging to drug delivery, showcasing their potential in advancing therapeutic interventions and diagnostic techniques in healthcare.

The stability conferred by PEGylation on gold nanoparticles is another key benefit that enhances their utility in various settings. Park et al. (2013) demonstrated that polymeric functionalities on the gold surface result in highly stable PEGylated gold nanoparticles, even under extreme conditions where other nanoparticles may coagulate.

Additionally, the controlled release of payloads from PEGylated gold nanoparticles, facilitated by the presence of PEG, offers a significant advantage in drug delivery systems. Kumar et al. (2012) observed efficient and controlled payload release from gold nanoparticles co-functionalized with PEG, enabling the attachment of large amounts of drugs or targeting groups.

In conclusion, PEGylated gold nanoparticles offer a wide range of benefits, including their role as radiosensitizers in cancer therapy, biocompatibility for targeted drug delivery, stability in biological environments, and controlled payload release in drug delivery systems. These properties collectively highlight the immense potential of PEGylated gold nanoparticles in revolutionizing biomedical applications and advancing precision medicine.

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Nanopartz In Vitro Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles

Nanopartz has designed and manufactured a proprietary polymer bridge that has shown advantages over PEG in a variety of ways. In particular, it has reduced the length necessary for use in salt containing buffers. Whereas PEG requires a minimum 2KDa length, or ~12nm, our polymer will only increase the diameter of the nanoparticles by about 2nm for the same salt resistance. In regards to charge, PEG is a strongly negative chain whereas our polymer is neutral charged, offering the benefits of a zwitter ligand with reduced non specific binding. A comparison table follows:

PEG vs. Nanopartz In Vitro Polymer
  Nanopartz™ in vitro Gold Nanoparticles PEG Gold Nanoparticles
Stability (salt,pH,chemicals) High Medium
Can be Monovalent Yes No
Nonspecific binding Very low Medium
Can be Sterilized Yes No
Diameter Increase 2nm >12nm
Ligand Chain Charge 0mV -20mV

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Nanopartz In Vivo Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles

Nanopartz has designed and manufactured a proprietary polymer bridge for in vivo applications that has shown advantages over PEG in a variety of ways. In particular, it has increased the half life circulation times for equivalent gold nanoparticles with PEG by over 50%. In addition to increased circulation times, larger nanoparticles may be used as the total diameter increase using our in vivo polymer is less. A comparison table follows:

PEG vs. Nanopartz In Vivo Polymer
  Nanopartz™ in vivo Gold Nanoparticles PEG Gold Nanoparticles
Half Life Circulation times 50% greater than PEG Good
Nonspecific binding Lower, dependent on functionalization Medium
Can be Sterilized Yes No
Diameter Increase <5nm >12nm
Ligand Chain Charge -10mV -20mV

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He, Z., Liu, J., & Du, L. (2014). The unexpected effect of pegylated gold nanoparticles on the primary function of erythrocytes. Nanoscale, 6(15), 9017-9024.

Kumar, D., Meenan, B., & Dixon, D. (2012). Glutathione-mediated release of bodipy&amp;reg; from peg cofunctionalized gold nanoparticles. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 4007.

Oroskar, P., Jameson, C., & Murad, S. (2016). Simulated permeation and characterization of pegylated gold nanoparticles in a lipid bilayer system. Langmuir, 32(30), 7541-7555.

Park, G., Seo, D., Chung, I., & Song, H. (2013). Poly(ethylene glycol)- and carboxylate-functionalized gold nanoparticles using polymer linkages: single-step synthesis, high stability, and plasmonic detection of proteins. Langmuir, 29(44), 13518-13526.

Stan, G., DelRio, F., MacCuspie, R., & Cook, R. (2012). Nanomechanical properties of polyethylene glycol brushes on gold substrates. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 116(10), 3138-3147.

Zhang, X., Wu, D., Shen, X., Chen, J., Sun, Y., Liu, P., … & Liang, X. (2012). Size-dependent radiosensitization of peg-coated gold nanoparticles for cancer radiation therapy. Biomaterials, 33(27), 6408-6419.