All About Magnetic Nanoparticles

Definition, Properties and Applications

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are a class of nanoparticles with unique magnetic properties that have garnered significant interest due to their diverse range of applications in various fields, particularly in biomedicine and nanotechnology. MNPs can be synthesized, protected, functionalized, and applied in a multitude of ways, making them versatile building blocks for various functional systems (Lu et al., 2007). The properties of MNPs can be tuned to suit specific applications, and they have been extensively studied for their potential in biomedical and nanotechnology-based applications (Kolhatkar et al., 2013). MNPs, particularly magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, have been extensively investigated for their biomedical applications, including diagnostic imaging, biological sensing, drug delivery, cell tracking, and gene delivery (Ling et al., 2015). Additionally, MNPs have shown promise in tissue engineering applications, such as in the mechanical conditioning of cells growing in culture (Pankhurst et al., 2003).

The unique properties of MNPs, such as their heat generation capacity in alternating magnetic fields, have motivated current research for biomedical applications, including tumor necrosis induction, drug release, and cellular signaling or gene transcription stimulation (Zhang et al., 2015). Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention in a wide range of magnetic theranostics, including magnetic biosensors, drug delivery, magnetic separation, magnetic imaging, and hyperthermia therapy (Wu et al., 2021). Furthermore, the development of magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles has opened up new possibilities for detection/imaging via fluorescence or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic separation applications (Mandal et al., 2019).

The combination of fluorescent and magnetic properties in composite nanoparticles offers a range of potential applications, such as bioseparation, bio-imaging, tumor cell localization, and cancer treatment (Wang & Su, 2011). One-dimensional magnetic nanostructures have also been identified as significant for biorelated applications due to their unique properties (Wang et al., 2016). MNPs are well-established nanomaterials that offer controlled size, external manipulability, and enhanced contrast in MRI (Gao et al., 2009). Their applications in biomedicine and other technical areas have been widely recognized (Schier et al., 2019).

MNPs have also been explored for various biomedical applications, including MR imaging, gene transport, hyperthermia, radiotherapy, magnetically guided drug delivery, and more, owing to their unique magnetic properties and biocompatibility (Hussain et al., 2014). Additionally, the specific properties of magnetic nanoparticles, such as magnetic responsiveness and MRI visibility, have been leveraged for drug delivery and magnetic targeting of brain tumors (Chertok et al., 2008). The potential applications of magnetic nanoparticle assemblies in data storage, spintronics, drug delivery, cancer therapy, adaptive materials, and multifunctional reconfigurable materials have been highlighted (Singamaneni et al., 2011).

The interdisciplinary nature of the application of magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical research has been emphasized, reflecting the wide range of potential applications and the need for collaboration across different fields (Duriagina et al., 2018). Iron oxide nanoparticles have been of interest in a wide range of biomedical applications due to their response to applied magnetic fields and unique magnetic properties (Maldonado-Camargo et al., 2017). The multifunctional properties of magnetic nanoparticles have led to increased interest in their use for biomedical applications (Kim et al., 2010). Hybrid nanoparticles with multifunctional properties have been developed for multimodal imaging and magnetic separation applications (Basiruddin et al., 2011).

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have emerged as promising candidates for various biomedical applications, such as enhanced resolution contrast agents for MRI, targeted drug delivery and imaging, hyperthermia, gene therapy, stem cell tracking, molecular/cellular tracking, and magnetic separation technologies (Mody et al., 2010). Furthermore, the use of magnetic nanoparticles as carriers to enhance the delivery of therapeutic agents in the presence of an external magnetic field is being studied (Ji et al., 2007). Magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles have been the subject of various studies due to their proven biological properties and good biocompatibility, with applications in cancer hyperthermia therapy, drug delivery, cell labeling, enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic separation (Rasouli et al., 2018).

In conclusion, magnetic nanoparticles exhibit a wide range of properties and applications, particularly in biomedicine and nanotechnology. Their unique magnetic properties, tunable characteristics, and multifunctional capabilities make them valuable tools for various biomedical applications, including imaging, drug delivery, hyperthermia therapy, and molecular tracking.

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