All About Gold Nanowires

Definition, Properties and Applications

Gold nanowires are one-dimensional nanostructures that have garnered significant attention due to their unique properties and diverse applications. These nanowires are typically synthesized through various methods such as chemical synthesis in acidic solutions (Kim et al., 2008), electrodeposition (Zhang et al., 2009), and organic-free synthesis (Zhou et al., 2015). Gold nanowires are known for their excellent electrical, optical, and mechanical properties (Lü et al., 2011), and they exhibit remarkable flexibility and robustness, making them suitable for applications in wearable optoelectronic devices (Gong et al., 2014). Additionally, they have been found to possess high aspect ratios, which further enhances their appeal for use in various technological applications (Zhou et al., 2015).

The properties of gold nanowires have been extensively studied, revealing their mechanical behavior, fracture mechanisms, and electrical conductivity. Research has shown that ultrathin gold nanowires exhibit yield strength asymmetry, where the tensile yield stress is significantly larger than the compressive yield stress in small nanowires (Diao et al., 2004). Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to understand the tensile behaviors of gold nanowires, demonstrating their ability to withstand mechanical contact and relatively low pressures while maintaining their strength and electrical conductivity (Wang & Yi, 2014). These mechanical properties make gold nanowires promising candidates for use in nanoscale electric and mechanical devices (Lü et al., 2011).

In addition to their mechanical properties, gold nanowires also exhibit unique optical characteristics. They have been shown to resonate surface-localized plasmons, which differ from those of silver nanowires under resonance conditions (Fitio et al., 2019). Moreover, the optical forces in gold nanowire pairs have been found to be significantly larger than those observed in pairs of nanospheres, highlighting their potential for applications in metamaterials and optics (Zhao et al., 2010).

The applications of gold nanowires are diverse and encompass various fields such as materials science, optoelectronics, and nanotechnology. They have been utilized in the fabrication of high-density resistive memory devices due to their remarkable on/off ratio and low driving voltage (Hsu & Chou, 2012). Furthermore, gold nanowires have been employed in biosensing applications, where their porous arrays facilitate interfacial electron transport and enhance electrical conductivity (Zhang et al., 2009). Additionally, their optical properties have been leveraged for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), making them effective substrates for detecting and analyzing molecules (Hong et al., 2011).

In conclusion, gold nanowires are highly versatile nanostructures with exceptional properties that make them valuable for a wide range of applications. Their unique combination of mechanical, electrical, and optical characteristics has positioned them as promising materials for the development of advanced technologies in fields such as optoelectronics, nanoelectromechanical systems, and biosensing.

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Fitio, V., Yaremchuk, I., Vernyhor, O., & Bobitski, Y. (2019). Resonance of surface-localized plasmons in a system of periodically arranged copper and aluminum nanowires on a dielectric substrate. Applied Nanoscience, 10(8), 2609-2616.

Gong, S., Schwalb, W., Wang, Y., Chen, Y., Tang, Y., Si, J., … & Cheng, W. (2014). A wearable and highly sensitive pressure sensor with ultrathin gold nanowires. Nature Communications, 5(1).

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Lü, Y., Song, J., Huang, J., & Lou, J. (2011). Fracture of sub‐20nm ultrathin gold nanowires. Advanced Functional Materials, 21(20), 3982-3989.

Wang, W. and Yi, C. (2014). Molecular dynamics understanding on tensile behaviours of cold welding experiments of <100> oriented ultra-thin gold nanowires. Materials Research Innovations, 18(sup2), S2-673-S2-677.

Zhang, X., Li, D., Bourgeois, L., Wang, H., & Webley, P. (2009). Direct electrodeposition of porous gold nanowire arrays for biosensing applications. Chemphyschem, 10(2), 436-441.

Zhao, R., Tassin, P., Koschny, T., & Soukoulis, C. (2010). Optical forces in nanowire pairs and metamaterials. Optics Express, 18(25), 25665. Zhou, M., Lin, M.,

Wang, Y., Guo, X., Guo, X., Peng, L., … & Ding, W. (2015). Organic-free synthesis of ultrathin gold nanowires as effective sers substrates. Chemical Communications, 51(59), 11841-11843.