Gold Nanoparticle Imaging Methods -STORM

Techniques, Limitations, Techniques

Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) is a super-resolution fluorescence imaging technique that enables the visualization of subcellular structures with high accuracy localization of individual fluorophores (Bates et al., 2013). STORM achieves subdiffraction-limit resolution by sequentially imaging and localizing individual fluorophores, allowing for the resolution of structures below the diffraction limit of light (Erstling et al., 2021). It has been widely used for bioimaging, demonstrating lateral and axial resolutions of approximately 20 and 30 nm, respectively (Nguyen et al., 2022). Furthermore, STORM has been applied to analyze human brain sections, revealing the nanoscale organization of pathological aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases (Codron et al., 2020).

The technique has also been utilized for imaging and intracellular tracking of cancer-derived exosomes, demonstrating its potential in studying cancer biology and intercellular communication (Chen et al., 2016). Additionally, STORM has been employed in the imaging of subcortical white matter, showcasing its applicability in neuroscience research (Hainsworth et al., 2017). Moreover, STORM has been used for the fluorescence imaging of nanoscale domains in polymer blends, providing comparable structural characteristics to atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (Gramlich et al., 2014).

STORM has been compared with other super-resolution optical microscopy approaches, such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, and has rapidly gained popularity due to its high spatial resolution and ease of implementation (Tam & Merino, 2015). It has also been successfully implemented for subdiffraction-resolution fluorescence imaging, providing 3D imaging with spatial resolution ten times better than the diffraction limit in all three dimensions without invoking sample or optical beam scanning (Huang et al., 2008).

In conclusion, STORM is a versatile and valuable tool for super-resolution fluorescence imaging, with applications ranging from neurodegenerative disease research to cancer biology and materials science.

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Bates, M., Jones, S., & Zhuang, X. (2013). Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (storm): a method for superresolution fluorescence imaging. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols, 2013(6), pdb.top075143.

Chen, C., Zong, S., Wang, Z., Ju, L., Zhu, D., Zhang, Y., … & Cui, Y. (2016). Imaging and intracellular tracking of cancer-derived exosomes using single-molecule localization-based super-resolution microscope. Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8(39), 25825-25833.

Codron, P., Letournel, F., Marty, S., Renaud, L., Bodin, A., Duchesne, M., … & Chevrollier, A. (2020). Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (storm) reveals the nanoscale organization of pathological aggregates in human brain. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 47(1), 127-142.

Erstling, J., Hinckley, J., Bag, N., Hersh, J., Feuer, G., Lee, R., … & Wiesner, U. (2021). Ultrasmall, bright, and photostable fluorescent core–shell aluminosilicate nanoparticles for live‐cell optical super‐resolution microscopy. Advanced Materials, 33(8).

Gramlich, M., Bae, J., Hayward, R., & Ross, J. (2014). Fluorescence imaging of nanoscale domains in polymer blends using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (storm). Optics Express, 22(7), 8438.

Hainsworth, A., Lee, S., Foot, P., Patel, A., Poon, W., & Knight, A. (2017). Super‐resolution imaging of subcortical white matter using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (storm) and super‐resolution optical fluctuation imaging (sofi). Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 44(4), 417-426.

Huang, B., Wang, W., Bates, M., & Zhuang, X. (2008). Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. Science, 319(5864), 810-813.

Nguyen, D., Mun, S., Park, H., Jeong, U., Kim, G., Lee, S., … & Kim, D. (2022). Super-resolution fluorescence imaging for semiconductor nanoscale metrology and inspection. Nano Letters, 22(24), 10080-10087.

Tam, J. and Merino, D. (2015). Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (storm) in comparison with stimulated emission depletion (sted) and other imaging methods. Journal of Neurochemistry, 135(4), 643-658.