Gold Nanoparticle Functionalization Methods

Discrete Methods and Applications

To functionalize gold nanoparticles, various techniques have been developed, offering efficient and versatile methods for modifying the surface of these nanoparticles to tailor their properties for specific applications. One approach involves the use of thiol-ligands in a water/organic solvent mixture, allowing for rapid grafting of thiol groups onto the gold nanoparticle surface Fontana et al. (2014). Additionally, a rapid one-pot method utilizing photochemistry has been presented for functionalizing gold nanoparticles with folic acid (Castillo et al., 2013). Furthermore, a simple and facile method for the functionalization of thiol-coated gold nanoparticles using microwave-assisted 1,3 dipolar cycloadditions has been described (Sommer & Weck, 2007).

Functionalization of gold nanoparticles has also been achieved through the surface modification with surfactants or polymer chains to overcome challenges associated with their use (Etxeberria et al., 2013). Moreover, the development of oligonucleotide-coated metallic nanoparticles as a flexible platform for molecular imaging agents has been presented, demonstrating the potential for functionalization with a variety of biomolecules (Nitin et al., 2007). Additionally, the creation of fullerenethiolate-functionalized gold nanoparticles has been reported, introducing a new class of surface-confined metal−C60 nanocomposites (and & Nakai, 2001).

Biological methods for gold nanoparticle synthesis using plant extracts have attracted attention as eco-friendly alternatives to chemical and physical methods, offering a cleaner and simpler approach to nanoparticle synthesis (Ren et al., 2012). Furthermore, the use of aptamers and reagents based on gold nanoparticles for the detection of Escherichia coli has been demonstrated, showcasing the potential for functionalization in biosensing applications (Pięta et al., 2013).

In summary, the functionalization of gold nanoparticles encompasses a wide range of techniques, including thiol-ligand grafting, photochemical methods, microwave-assisted cycloadditions, surface modification with polymers, and biological synthesis. These methods offer diverse and efficient approaches to tailor the properties of gold nanoparticles for various applications, from molecular imaging to biosensing.

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