All About Gold Nanorods
Definition, Properties and Applications
Gold nanorods are anisotropic nanoparticles with unique optical and physical properties that make them valuable in various applications. These nanorods have been extensively studied for their synthesis, characterization, and diverse applications in fields such as biomedicine, materials science, and nanotechnology (Pérez‐Juste et al., 2005; -Huang et al., 2010). The synthesis of gold nanorods involves various methods, including seed-mediated growth approaches and ultrafast laser-induced formation, to achieve control over their size and shape (Yoo, 2023; , Gou & Murphy, 2005; , Tomak & Zareie, 2015; , Chen, 2017). These methods are crucial for tailoring the properties of gold nanorods for specific applications.
Gold nanorods exhibit distinctive optical properties, particularly in the near-infrared (NIR) region, due to their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band, making them suitable for bioimaging, photothermal therapy, and drug delivery applications (Haine & Niidome, 2017; , Qamar et al., 2022; , Haine & Niidome, 2015; , Yamashita et al., 2011). Their ability to convert light energy into heat energy has been exploited for photothermal therapy, where they are used to ablate cancer cells (Zhou et al., 2014; , Chen, 2017; , Huang et al., 2010). Additionally, gold nanorods have been utilized as contrast agents for tumor imaging and drug delivery systems, demonstrating their potential in clinical applications (Qamar et al., 2022; , Haine & Niidome, 2015; , Rostro-Kohanloo et al., 2009).
The unique optical properties of gold nanorods have also been leveraged for various biomedical applications, including photoacoustic imaging, controlled-release systems, and as drug carriers (Chen, 2017; , Yamashita et al., 2011; , Chamberland et al., 2008). Furthermore, their biocompatibility and surface functionalization potential make them suitable for conjugation with biomolecular ligands and targeting moieties, enhancing their applicability in targeted drug delivery and imaging (Gu et al., 2011; , Chen et al., 2011).
In materials science, gold nanorods have been investigated for their optical anisotropy, electrochemical modulation, and assembly with polypeptides, demonstrating their potential in developing responsive materials and devices (Sugawa et al., 2011; , Huang et al., 2008). Moreover, their optical properties have been utilized in the fabrication of composite films for electrochemical modulation and in the development of functionalized solutions for various applications (Basiruddin et al., 2010; , Sugawa et al., 2011).
In conclusion, gold nanorods possess unique optical and physical properties that make them versatile and valuable in a wide range of applications, including biomedical imaging, photothermal therapy, drug delivery, and materials science. Their synthesis, characterization, and functionalization play crucial roles in tailoring their properties for specific applications, making them promising candidates for various technological and biomedical advancements.
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Chamberland, D., Agarwal, A., Kotov, N., Fowlkes, J., Carson, P., & Wang, X. (2008). Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—anex vivopreliminary rat study. Nanotechnology, 19(9), 095101. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/19/9/095101
Chen, B. (2017). A prospective study of laser treatment of port wine stain associated with gold nanorods. Journal of Nanomedicine Research, 5(3). https://doi.org/10.15406/jnmr.2017.05.00116
Chen, C., Wang, C., Cheng, C., Wei, C., & Chen, Y. (2011). Surface plasmon induced optical anisotropy of cdse quantum dots on well-aligned gold nanorods grating. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 115(5), 1520-1523. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp1098427
Gou, L. and Murphy, C. (2005). Fine-tuning the shape of gold nanorods. Chemistry of Materials, 17(14), 3668-3672. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm050525w
Gu, Y., Sun, W., Wang, G., & Fang, N. (2011). Single particle orientation and rotation tracking discloses distinctive rotational dynamics of drug delivery vectors on live cell membranes. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 133(15), 5720-5723. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja200603x
Haine, A. and Niidome, T. (2015). Drug delivery systems controlled by irradiation of near infrared light. Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology, 28(5), 705-710. https://doi.org/10.2494/photopolymer.28.705
Haine, A. and Niidome, T. (2017). Gold nanorods as nanodevices for bioimaging, photothermal therapeutics, and drug delivery. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 65(7), 625-628. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c17-00102
Huang, H., Koria, P., Parker, S., Selby, L., Megeed, Z., & Rege, K. (2008). Optically responsive gold nanorod−polypeptide assemblies. Langmuir, 24(24), 14139-14144. https://doi.org/10.1021/la802842k
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Qamar, M., Abbas, G., Afzaal, M., Naz, M., Ghuffar, A., Irfan, M., … & Kosicka, E. (2022). Gold nanorods for doxorubicin delivery: numerical analysis of electric field enhancement, optical properties and drug loading/releasing efficiency. Materials, 15(5), 1764. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051764
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Sugawa, K., Akiyama, T., & Yamada, S. (2011). Electrochemical modulation of the optical property of polythiophene-gold nanorod composite films. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, 539(1), 1/-4/. https://doi.org/10.1080/15421406.2011.566021
Tomak, A. and Zareie, H. (2015). Gold nanorod encapsulated bubbles. RSC Advances, 5(49), 38842-38845. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5ra03240g
Yamashita, S., Fukushima, H., Niidome, Y., Mori, T., Katayama, Y., & Niidome, T. (2011). Controlled-release system mediated by a retro diels–alder reaction induced by the photothermal effect of gold nanorods. Langmuir, 27(23), 14621-14626. https://doi.org/10.1021/la2036746
Yoo, S. (2023). Synthesis of ultra‐small gold nanorods: effect of reducing agent on reaction rate control. Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society. https://doi.org/10.1002/bkcs.12706
Zhou, T., Yu, M., Zhang, B., Wang, L., Wu, X., Zhou, H., … & Wei, T. (2014). Inhibition of cancer cell migration by gold nanorods: molecular mechanisms and implications for cancer therapy. Advanced Functional Materials, 24(44), 6922-6932. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201401642